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Full text of "Superintendents of the Yellowstone National Parks Monthly Report, April 1920"

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E 145 


a P .-; IL, 




TA3L2 01 C02JTJMTS. 


I. General Conditions l 

II. Personnel 4 

HI. Work Completed 7 

IV. Work in Progress 8 

V. Work Segun n 

VI. Plans or Proposed Work 

VII. Polioie 1S 

VIII. Cost of Operation 13 

IX. Other Hatters of Interest.... 13 

Wild Animals X4 

Birds 18 


Seasonal Changes 18 

Arrests & Violations of Law 19 

Surest Fires 

Accidents and Casualties... 19 

Medical Services 

Natural Phenomena 

Special Visitors 21 

Motion Pictures 21 

'- iscellaneous 21 

X, Receipts and Remittances 22 






S, 1920. 

9mt Sin 


The following 1* ray reoort en conditions in the 
Yellowstone national Park, and on the operation of the park 
for the month of April, 1980. 


The general conditions of the weather thrsHghout 
the month was disap -ointing to everyone Interested in the 
welfare of the wild animals dependent upon grass for sub- 
sistence, as It was to ranchers and stoov- omers in the 
states. Tollowlng a winter of unusual length and severity 
whioh was most trying to wild animals and donestio stoek 
depending upon winter range for subsistence, it was constant 
ly cloudy and stormy, with a temperature too low most of the 
time to permit of woofa growth o? forage, cad while there *aa 
soma advanoement from the ■beginning to the end of the month, 
and some green grass was available at ttc end of the rantb 
for the animals, it was far from being enough to relieve the 
situation, and feeding had to bs continued throughout the 
month and into Kay* 

The mean temperature for the month was 30.6, which 
was an average of 6.4 degrees colder than normal for April; 
has never bead exceeded, and only equalled once - in 1917, 
when the mean was the same. The lowest tom?o?atu?a occurred 
on April 1st, 3 degrees below zero, and this sac the lowest 
temperature ever recorded in ■?ril. B-xoe >t for a few days 
at the beginning of the second week, the temperature wae con- 
stantly bolow normal throughout She month. 

?he total precipitation was 1.33, which is 0*05 
\ inches less than normal, but most of this came in the f«ra of 

I . llrrht daily snows or rains, the snow usually melting as it 

earns, or soon afterwards. Twenty-one days the precipitation 
was sufficient to be measurable. There were but two clear 
days during the month, and but three days on which light 
rain or snow did not fall. 

Of the total jreeipltation, there were *»8 inches 
of snow, which was below the average for pril, but the 

water of days en which mow fell was uausually large, it 
Manaoth the snow eever diminished slowly froE 18. n Inches on 
April let* to a trace on the 22ad, and there was no mare than 
a traee at tha end of the month. She thaiylng conditions?,, 
while very slow In action os compared to normal, did unoover 
naeh range in the vicinity of Sardiner, Mmftiha and alcnf; 
the north line of the pane on the lower levels, and the grass 
had made a start at the end of the Math* 

itsorc than the usutj; amount c* rjTjft oafraraed dr.ring 
the month, and the mar imam Telocity of 42 miles -er hour from 
the so ithwest en ^pril 14th has heen excelled hat osoe in 
April, In 1912, when a 44 mile wind from the same direction 
was reoor&ed. 

Share were fewer clear days and lens sunshine than 
for any April recorded. 

*e "'-ojitkly Hatsoralo?ieal . , furnish©--' 

the local office of the uifchcr Barcon, is inclosed. 

She following ooraparieon of s:iow on the ground at 
different stations iBMk 31 aai April 30 will gtw some idea 
of the nrospeots of llfBii Tim ftti esjdi rtaisi 



late Banger Station 

47 in. 

64 la 

Seta Eutte .anger station 

20 * 

22 » 

Jewer falls Ranger station 

10 ■ 

29 " 

Buffalo yarm 

ie " 

ae H 

Canyon Banger station 

48 " 

TO ■ 

Herri c Banger Station 

48 " 

M " 

Upper Basin Sanger station 

36 " 

70 " 

Biverci&e Hanger Station 

2£ M 

ee " 

0*1 latin Eaager station 

80 " 

«e ■ 



19 ■ 

dardiner Hanger Station 



K Joint expedition participated, in by this off See, 
the Yellowstone lark rraatportation Company, Yellowstone i>ark 
Camps Company, Oeorgs Whittaker, and C, A. Hamilton, made an 
attempt to creak the road for teams as far as Golden Gate on 
April 26th, hat got through with the team for loss than two 
miles and reported that it was a little too early to -taia say 
showing due to heavy drifts. An expedition sent out the 
afternoon of Bay 2nd succeeded in getting the team and wagon 
as far as Silver Sate, and leading the teem, without wagon, 
over and around the drifts to Oolden Oate. 

2he beginning of lay finds a body of practically 
four feet of snow on the rond fits'" Kferrla 
rla Canycn, with drifts wsach dee «r In places;, and fr 
(Joldba Gate to Borrio, an i -~ a lil J than three 

i tfitli deader drifts in places. Jhese conditions give 
tetter prcepeetc cf opening the roads tl? - IMf if, 

»/) ca they were o ened with diffieulty wound the loop for the 
Of-iniae of the tcurict seaeo&. June 2Gb 


3Jhe read from Sardine? to Headquarters was open for 
motor travel throughout the month, and vnts need erteasivc 
by our trucks, and those of the Hotel Coa may and Omnoe 
Company In hauling supplies. Use of hear-,' trucks kept it 
badly ratted, aai it was necessary to MS a grader war it 
occasionally to aauoto out the ruts, and to drain it in places. 

She ro&a tcwurda tlto Northeast corner was open for 
tea-as traTSliag la kBj of tiia anew, as fa? as Sower Falls 
Station ttksougheut ihe aoatft, a»d oa m fc»? M Cooia? for very 
light travel Tsmtil the latter part of the raonth, when the 
oelti-.qg eondition of the drifts laade it very difficult to 
get ever at all, aad the (MM Sl% "<aail contractor had munh 
trcuTjlfe gett.h% fcfe* ^iiil throi\$.. AU.oshar pwfc roads 
were blocked with aiow. Uiatswn sftfda entered the park during 
the month, as shown by the Chief Keeper's renort of travel 
Lxli/oud, bat these could hardly bw classed as tourists as 
they were for the raost part on business. 


*'• had occasion to hire a few laborers for urgent 
repairs to reads uad bridges, aud tht Tellswstone Park Caraps 
Company, the Tellowsteae Park Jransportat ion Company, and the 
Yellowstone Park Fetal Ccstrpeny alsb had occasion to hire men 
to Begin their efforts towards getting in supplies and pre- 
paring £ov ch* tourist season. Such ; asn ao were aeedec 
have been found thus far without trouble, and at last naor's 
wage scale. 

These coaceeuicnai'c are also getting li» their supplies, 
and report aost of them difficult to secure and higher in 
price then laat year. ?his is especially true of sugar, / 

potatoes, and forage supplies. Soger is about £16 per ewt., 
f. o. b. San Francisco; potatoes are v6 per ewt. and up in 
the local market; Hay went to .;50 per ten on April 11th, 

foT'ir/l-r- a stars and continued oola backward 
and wao hwd to ,T«t at my nrlee. 



' >rt 1 1st tAoro urere 54 eurployeea on duty under 
ttls off lae in tbe wit, and tn April SOtn there wer* .»6. f 

Belocr Is given a list of the raaraber of employees servinp- 
under appointment, with a gec-wral statement ef the hi^of 
worK performed ty cash olass. 

1 Asst. inglneer 
1 n*oXar»Uh 

5 ClerSs 

1 steward ,inf- ''aster 
of "Jrars -v»rt«*len 

8 »l*?trlelane 

Office engineering, except S 
days on ?nave./?^ 

General th wertc, ohoe 
lng draft ani:»alB and ranker 
fladdle horses, and Wfi+raallng 
teoje ermlp^c.t. 

1 iHs**t."»iTR agent end pur- 
ohraltip nlerttt 1 on orders, vam- 
posalc rvaS ■rouchurBi 1 steiu>:ra- 
phor, filea m& rersauest 1 r»n 
payrolls and ttaetoepin?? 1 on 
seat accounting and in charge 
of storehouse, it odd laments 
olerica aeslsted Esa^er -acinnor 
In indexing library, and tabu- 
latirjg notes on wild animals, 
birds, and other Aa«-a rolatiwg 
So the *etabli3>nent of the aro- 
poaed meeaa. 

In charge of all transportation, 
Irwl-jding ahoy.s z-m ^rwpo. 

1 In ehtrge of rxjnsr plant who 
operated and did necessary line 
Tmr^j 2 aaiitottmts wbo cerate* 
regular shifts Including Sundays. 

1 Buffalo EMp«r 
1 Foremen 

1 Gen. fforemau 

1 M 

1 Matter Mechanic 

1 Automobile mechanic 

1 . otorcycle mechanic 

1 Plumber 

1 Painter 

In charge of tane buffalo herd, 
feeding and ear lag for them. 

1 In charge of stables, and spent 
most of month repairing tents and 
harness for next season* s wore 1 
In eharge of engineering work grom 
It to 30 of Tontti. 

tioti work. 
lags a^ 

i .Tor,:. 
:•! m -* 

In storehouse Issuing 
•applies 90 fanl^tec and^fanr&rs, 
corrals, etc., and sorting oyer, 
moving and straightening up store- 
houses; also helped handle supplies 
fron railroad. 

In oharge of telephone system; did 
emergency work and Installed In- 
struments, lso ran lirht track 
hauling freight or express froa 
railroad to Headquarters when not 
otherwise engaged. 

latohnan at Headquarters. Made 
hourly patrols for fire at night, 
and kept fires up and cleaned up 
Head quar ters building. or ted 
dally Including Sundays. 

On leave without pay 1st to 17th 
at noon. 

or'Ad on automobile and truck repairs. 

Worked on motorcycles 28th to 30th. 

In charge of general plumbing at 
Headquarters; did general repair work 
on plumbing. 

iienovated quarters at Headquarters 
and painting otor oars. 


Jia. JUut* 

1 o?el«praph erator 



Telephone Operator 


Chief Ran/rer 

Asst. Chief :.arv?ers 

6 1st class park rangers 

Sent and received estern Union 
telegrams; also pat In regular shift 
as a switch board oTO-ator, seven 
days a week. 

Operated telephone swit oh hoard 

: iscelleneoua work at Headquarters* 

In charge of raiger force. 

Assisting Chief Hanger. One In 
oharge of southern district; two 
assisting with feeding wild animals. 

In charge of ranger stations, en 
duty In Chief Ranger's Office, patrol 
duty in the park protecting wild 
anlnals, and feeding wild animals, 

ditto. Also one en 

duty until about middle of nonth 
protecting wild animals in Gallatin 
fleas : reserre adjoining the park on 
the north. 

'The above employees were on duty, with the exoeptior. f 
-the tine they were on leave of absence. 

In addition to the regular employees listed above the 
following were employed temporarily i 

As ieTt I- - r. c O. 

Engineman, assisting with repairs 

to motor vehicles, 1 1 

Teamster, general work at Head- 
quarters, in stables, hauling, 
supplies, etc., _1_ \ 

m ■ I ai-'jrs 

Laborer at Buffalo Farm assisting with buffalo ;pril 5 to 30. 

In addition to the above the following were employed 
temporarily on bridge work: AjfU 1ft April 30th 

2-horse teamster 
4-horse teamster 
laesYM a *— b » > 



Skilled lfiboBcr 
Blacksmith helper 

,4mtU soft 




IgfeTftff PlJ^gS3PA» 

Dorlq& April annual leaves were granted as follows 

3* Im Stinnett, fcer oohaaio 

Chester A. Lindsley Assistant Sunt, 

J. B. Dupuls Park Banker 

CO. lauer Clerk 

John Bel-jar, S toward & iSstr of irans. 

A* C. Itoomam iter 

loroy Hill, iur.Clk. I Spl. Disb. gt. 

L, E. Mac Baa Clark 

L. K* Mao&as Clerk 

. . Barney Ant* Knginoer 

C. J. smith Aaet. Chief Baiter 

C. J. Smith Aaet* Chief Ranger 

1 to 17 (noon) - 16^(« 

1 to 7 6 

3 to U 10 

6 to 7 S 

7 noon to 8 noon 1 

8 noon to 9 noon 1 
15 to 17 3 

19 to 23 5 
26 to 30 5 
15 to IS 2 

20 to 23 4 
26 to 28 3 

John L. Cooper, totoroycle lechsnio, £120 per month 
and quarters, affectiTe April 28th. 

III. OB. ?KD. 

(&) Construction of Ptoaleai Improvements. 

lortatr motion work was engaged in during the month. 

(b) Waintnnwint and Bspalr of .i-taraloal Imar 

Slight repairs to the road between JJanmth and Gardiner, 
5 miles, were required during the month, draining, fillip ruts 
with grader, etc., 

lowards the end of the month, it -as discovered that 
one of the piers on the high steel bridge, 3 miles oast of laa^oth, 
across dradiner River, on the Power Palls Road, had been under- x/ 
mined, and was in danger of going out. I small crew of men was 
at once organised ro repair it, and by the end of the month had 
succeeded in building ■ cofferdam and replacing the concrete founda- 
tion of the pier that had been washed out. Fortunately, the bridge 



had not settled and there was no damage srhatever, 

(«) famrovemonts by canpaefjfiflperft- 

The Camps Company and 2ranu »irtation Company both had 
considerable work under way during the ronth, as shown under 
another heading, but none was completed. 

(d) Sorvloo to the -ab^o- 

Slnoe the parte had but few visitors during the month, 
this feature was inconsequential. 

IV. ..owe ur PROOKBSS. 

The Yellowstone Fpvfc 'transport at lor Company had a 
number of automobile mechanics employes' constantly during the 
month, completing the moving of ;he shop to Mi quarters and 
installing machinery, and overhauling motor trucks and cars. 
:ueh was accomplished, but this work is so extensive that it 
.111 reqaire steady efforts until the openi^j of the tourist 
Mason to complete. 

2hey also employed two winters, resuming the work 
of minting the cars, which was left off during the severe 
winter weather. 

This company also employed a considerable force of 
car enters, remodeling their bunk houses at :'Jaamoth, and this 
work is also still In progress. 

The Yellowstine ark Kotel Company employed two china- 
men, who began the development of the vegetable garden on 
Gardiner : lver for su inlying the hotels. crew of men and a 
team were also employed for several days building a orlb more 
than 800 foot long of planks and stones along the bank of the 
Gardiner Hlver, to prevent the river from washing the garden 
away during high water. This Company received several carloads 
of supnlies and had them hauled by motor tracks to ZJemmoth and 

Ur* C. : , Hamilton, who owns and o orates general 
stores at Opper Basin and i.ake, was in the park most of the 
month, but inasmuch as the Lake and the Basin are still snowed 
in, he could not accomplish anything there so remained at 
w and assisted tho ; otal Company In storing supplies. 


Prjrcr it frUehraan rosuf»d work where they left off 
last fall, ef -neking improvements to their store building at S 

Mammoth. The wrk of renovating, painting, eto. , is atlll la 

2b* Yellowstone Park Camps company maintained a laige 
foros of carpenters and laborers at Mammoth Osnp, remodel lag 
the camp for the approaching park tourist season. 5ost of 
the old tents hare been torn down and made ready to be trans- 
ferred to Lake Camp as soon as the roads are open, as the lake, 
which has been closed for two years past, is to be opened again 
this season. t Jtsmmoth Camp the old-style tents are being re- 
placed with tent cottages, with white asbestos reefs, arranged 
in rectangles containing eight single and three double rooms, 
around a oourt, in the center of which will be a suitable sani- 
tary toilet. 2he capacity of each set of tents is to be 14 
beds. The seta of tents are arranged in evenly spaced squares, 
with streets of suitable width between, nine sets were marti- 
ally completed during the month. This development of a tent 
city is in line with new plans for remodeling Uaamoth Camp in 
accordance with plans approved by the Service, and contemplates 
eventually tearing down all service buildings, the main building, 
off iocs, etc., and erecting a new large building to house the 
office, amusement hall, dining room and kitchen, laundry, etc., 
but all of this oa mot be aooo ; lished before the opening of 
the season, as the oonnany has an immense amount of construction 
work to do to get its camps in chape at Mammoth, lake, and Jower 
Falls, for the opening of the tourist season, June SOth. 

At Kanaotfe, this Company also began the important work 
of building a plunge bath for use of tourists and others, natural 
not water for same to be taken from an excellent hot spring a 
little below Jupiter Spring terrace. The site was selected in 
the lower nart of Mammoth Camp, and the excavation for the plunge 
and the ditch leading to it from the hot spring Is «?ell,under 
way. Uater from this sane spring has been used in one of the 
government houses for baths for years, and has the appearance of 
being unusually fine. '£he plunge will be 40 by 00 feet in 
else, and 3 to If feet in depth, and I am under the impression 
that it will be one ef the finest in the Zest. It is thein- 
tentlon to complete it by the opening of the season, and later, 
possibly next fall, to cover it with a suitable building. 

About the middle of April the Csmns Company sent a 
crew of about five oamenters and laborers to Tower Falls to 
resume the wcrk of construction of a new main building at that 



camp, whloh was abandoned laat fall on account of bad weather, 
and this work Is progressing clowly. 

Oar shop foroa was engaged In overhauling motor trans- 
portation and keeping those In use In ronalr. J?he painter f in- 
ished one Ford oar and has another one under way, and spent 
the balance of his time renovating living quarters, kaleoralnlng, 
painting, eto. The plomber was busV thr<n*jrhout the month re- 
pairing plumbing and keeping it in wlrtcing condition. 2he main 
leading into Superintendent 4brlgbt*s quarters was found to be 
froaen, as it was turned off during his absenoe for the winter, 
' had to be dug up and renaired. 

The stable foreman, in addition to his general super- 
, vision of the stables, assisted in hauling supplies when they 
y were received at aardlner, assisted in using the grader for 

saoothing the read to the northern entrance, and the balance of 
his tins was spent in repairing tents for next summer's use. 

On vprll 13th isslstant Chief Ranger Jrli 
Ranger Frazler left headquarters for a trip with Mr. 
of the Chester-Outing Kovlng -ieture Coraoaay to the Onper Basin 
and Oanyon, where l». Ilamsey scoured motion pictures. They 
were still absent on this trio at the end of the month. 

Assistant Chief Range? Jaith was relieved fron his 
station at Oardlner, and after spending 7 days' leave (April 
»> to 23 and 26 to 28) at Livingston, left at midnight on the 
30th for riverside Station, where he will resume his duties In 
charge of the /astern Section of the park. 

After a five day trip to Sportsman lake, to investigate 
reported tracks of poachers, Rangere Douglas and Richards re- 
turned to Gallatin station on April 12, and reported that there 
were no Indioations of poaching In that vicinity. 

11 employees were admonished to give the grounds in 
the vicinity of their quarters a good policing, and all debris 



In addition to making the regular patrols throughout 
the park for the protection of wild animals, the ranger force 
did sons patrolling in the forest reserve wast of Yellowstone 
.lUvor along the park boundary; assisted In the care of the 
buffalo herd, and gave the usual winter attention to the feed- 
lag of the elk herds near aardlner. fhey also disposed of the 
carcasses ef the elk that died in the vieinity of the feeding 
grounds, and cared for the surolus horse herd, which was kept 
at Mammoth Hot Springs and fed. 


that had aooumul&ted taring the winter, exoe >t such as was 
■till frosen to the ground, wag gather** and hauled away. 


Ibe neater mechanic and blacken ith hegaa the work 
of overhauling the 75-eorse power Belte Caterpillar tractor, 
.- and the construction of a snow-plow. In accordance with plana 
received fro-n :taperintendent Albright In California, to ex- 
periment with In clearing the roada of the •nark froa enow. 
This work la atill In frogress, hut la nearlng collation. 

Beginning the ISth of Anrll, a man was employed with 
one of our team diaelng and deeding the field at the northern 
entrance, and thla work la atill In progreas. Jhla field was 
aeeded to timothy and alski* clover last spring, when It was 
aeeded to oata aa a norm crop. ?he oate grow all right, hut 
duo to the drynoaa of the season, hut little of the graaa aeod 
grow. ,s the field haa been well cultivated for two yeara, 
it la not neooaaary to plow it, hut a good discing with brush- 
ing with a hoary hruah after the seed Is sowed, ahould answer 
the purpose, hut it la doubtful If mob of a oroi of hay will 
bo grown on it thla yf— 

A Motorcycle neohanio was employed beginning April 
2eth, and la engaged in the important work of overhaul Ins and 
putting in ahaoe for au-mer road notrole, our fleet of raotor- 
ayolea. Jhla work will take several weak*. 

.reparations to begin the work of putting ina log and 
rook crib at the ilk Pork Bridge, in the national Forest eaat 
of the nark, were mad* to the extent of having drift bolts -nade 
in the blaoknith shop, and ahipiing these, with other sa pliea, 
by rail to Cody, Zoning, to be hauled from there to the Bite. 

TI. XU3S OR ra O r wM U) WORE. 

The work ef building a log and stone crib to protoet 
the bridge aero as the Klk Pork in the Knot Forest Keeerve, whioh 
is provided for by a apodal deficiency awsroprlatlon of .;S,0O0, 
waa not begun in April, as anticipated, exee t for a few oronara 
tions at Keadtmartera, such aa outlining the work, having drift 
bolts made in the shop, and shir. In , sse with other supplies 
to Cody, yarning, from whore they are to be hauled to the aite. 
Jho actual work of making this orib will bo began early in .Jay, 
as a snail crow is already on its wa^ to the site, fro- Cody, 
•yoming. it is necessary to oroeeoute this work fron the Cody 






aide, as the roads through the nark arc still hlociced with snow. 

It is jnroposed to build about 40 foot of lor: sad 
stone oribfciiirt on the Gardiner Hirer at the high steel bridge* 
about 3 miles east of Headquarters, to protest the pier which 
was repaired in Aprin from further da-rage from floods and drift 

I small crib, or a lot ef heavy rooks, will also hare 
to be plaoed along the bank of Oardiner River near the vegetable 
garden about too miles north of Headquarters, to prevent high 
water from washing out the main read. 

The road to Gardiner will probably require minor 
repairs during the month, and there is considerable earth and 
* rooks to be removed from it along the new road at the high 

It is proposed to ooracnoe the onenio? of the nark 
roads from Mammoth towards the Canyon and Lake, in cooperation with 
the Hotel Company, the Camps Company, and general store aon- 
oessioners George .hlttaker and C. A* Hamilton, as all of these 
^ concessioners are anxious to get through as soon as possible 
as they have an Immense amount of work to do at Lake and Canyon 
preparatory to the opening of the season, June 20th* It is 
hoped that the caterpillar traetor and snow^low, which are 
being prepared, can bo utilised to assist in the work of clear- 
ing this road of snow, though this is experimental. 

It is proposed to repair and set up our gasoline 
\ storage tank at Oardiner, on a new site rented from ■** . . 
Child near the railroad, vftiioh is better located for emptying 
from the oar. 2his will require a concrete foundation. 

Arrangements must be made to employ labor to inprove 
v/ the hay fields at the Buffalo Awn, and on Slough Creek, and 
to irrigate such meadows as require it at the buffalo fan sad 
at the northern entrance. 

The lawns and grounds at Headquarters must be brushed \ 
I and well polioed, and also watered as soon as ellmatlo con- 
v ditions require. 

2he fences at the Buffalo Vara, at Msameth around the 
\J buffalo pasture, and 4 miles on the north line west of Gardiner, 
must be gone over and repaired) the tame buffalo and surplus 
horses turned out on grass to save expensive hay as soon as 


•oesiblej and auliUMt must 1m given to tbe 1J ark uounty 
( Montana) authorities and the eltisens of Oardlner in re airing 
the road for twelve miles north of the nark that was badly 
imaged by our heavy 7ork of truck inr hay In for elk during the 
past winter. In this connection, ssistant Engineer Bu 
and 1 joined the Oardlner City business men at their dinner 
held at Shaw * Novell Hotel, Oardlner, on asatl 28, 1920, and 
diacaased with then the proposition of general repairs to this 
road, and establishing a nodal oani for motorists on park 
property olose to the Tillage of Oardlner. M also ./ent over 
this road with then on knell 29th, and made plane for its 
repair. Bat muoh of this work will he dene by the regular em- 

ftsjVjM at the Buffalo Fan* and park rangers. 

foreman 1. L. Kill reported at aafcln -ton fron leave 
of absenoe without pay, [back to duty April |l f and arrived In 
the oark for duty on April 1 . Ke haa slnee been ea-a*l mostly 
in getting ready to do the work on the Ik .-"ork Crib, and ia 
still in Cody and vicinity on ni ia work, whloh he will torn 
over to Ferorami . hi to as soon as praetloahle. 


foreman 111 Ian E. Ferrell was taken up for duty 
furlough on Mpjftl IHn« and is employed in assisting with 
re mlrs, and overhauling the oater pillar tractor and making tbe 
snowplow for opening park reads. Via services will also be 
needed soon to overhaul the road sprinkling system, whloh he is 
especially familiar with, due to long experience with it. 

711. rtLIClKS. 

?he only new policies adopted during the month were 
those contemplated If the revised general regulations ef the 
park, whloh were approved to take effect Arch 1, 1920, and 
were received in April. ?he nrinolpal change immediately effect- 
ive was that relating to fishing in park waters, which pro- 
hibits the taking of more than ten fish by one person in one 
day within two miles of the main belt line road, sad a circular 
was issued calling attention of park employees to this particular 


Jhe cost report for the month of April is not yet 
complete, but will be forwarded as soon as praetloahle. 



The month was an especially trying one for all of 
•or wild animal i. After spending every eant available for 
purchasing hay to feed oar elk, antenope, deer, and mountain 
sheep, during the months that are ordinarily severe, and even 
leaving a good margin for a reasonably lata spring* we were 
confronted with the situation of being out of hay for then 
early in April, and a realisation that the opening of spring 
was fry muoh behind the normal and mere hay would be needed 
to bring through several thousand animals that had been fed 
all winter at a oost of nearly forty thousand dollars. ITever 
before was It ever necessary to feed the wild animals after 
April 1st, and seldom after arch 1st, but with an average 
temperature of more than six degrees below normal during April, 
grass made but little progress In growing, and the animals 
were in a weak condition due to shortage of forage during the 
winter. Xt suddenly became very evident that if we were to 
save most of our herds of elk, more hay, r^obably about a 
hundred tone, must be had, and on April 9th I wired you to that 
effect. Tour prompt action in the matter in appealing to 
private parties interested In the preservation of the elk, 
which lead to such gratifying immediate results saved the day, 
and your prompt re lies by wire aaaoring assistance were also 
very essential, as the same conditions that required qulok 
action for the game affeoted the situation of feeding stock 
■eang the farmers in all of the adjoining states, and the price 
of hay went up to 50 a ton over Sunday, and it became very 
scarce. On receipt of your reassuring telegrams I engaged the 
bay by wire, and would not have been able to have scoured as 
moan as was needed in time had I waited lou-or. . total of 
^703.00 was raised and sent to me for this purpose, contributed 
as follows i 

Direotor Stephen 7. Slather, National ark service * 350.00 

ay National parks esooiation, 353.00 : 

By Mr, H. :.!. Blaokmor, lduest Kefinlng Company, 

Denver, Colorado, 500.00 

Jy William C. Sregg, of nackensack, :.ew Jersey 2000.00 

By Doctor 'illiam 0. Stillman, from Amcrloan Red 

Star Kellef ,asoolation, 1500.0Q 

'°**1 S vTQStOg. 

Approximately 100 tons of bay were purchased with these 
funds, and the greater portion of it cost at the rate of ,550 
per ton plus freight from shipping point. I little that had been 
engaged previously and not delivered was transferred to this 


account, and was secured at a less figure. ■ careful accounting 
will be made later, when all Mils, including freight, have cone 
in and been paid. Phis hay lasted until after the end of April. 
and the grass has now grown to the extent that it is no longer 
accessary to feed hay to the wild animals, and even the tame 
buffalo and the horses hare been turned out to grass to save the 
high priced hay since ay 1st. 

It is most gratifying to know that these donations so 
liberally made served their pur ose, as I am sure that without 
then the loss of life among our wild animals would have been 
enormous in April* Farmers, who were unable to get hay to supply 
the unloosed for need caused by the same conditions, either from 
Its scarcity or because they did not have the money with which 
to buy at so high a figure, suffered a considerable loss either 
in the death of their cattle, or in selling at a heavy sacrifice. 

guff al p, wild herd, . One buffalo oalf from the wild 
herd has been reoorted by the buffalo "Keeper as feeding all 
winter with about 100 elk, on the opposite side of Lamar Kiver 
from the Buffalo Farm. Sanger . inees. In charge of Lake station, 
reported seeing wild buffalo during the month in his district as 
follows: 1 bull in fair condition at Jhirbid Lake on the 14th; 
2 bulls in fair condition at Barys Bay on April 20th) and 26 
assorted in Pelican Valley on April 27th. 

Buff ale , teas herd . There was a total of 406 animals 
in this herd at the beginning of prll. Two calves born on April 
1st frose to death or were chilled so that they died soon after 
birth. An April 4th another oalf was born, and they have been 
owning frequently since, until at the end of the month there 
were 26 oalvee living. The cows were held at the Buffalo Farm on 
Lamar River, and on April 17th It was reoorted that the supply 
of hay there would be exhausted by the &v& of the month, and no 
alias of there being any grazing. ith great effort, about 8 i 
tons were hauled out on sleighs from Jfisramoth, by Bangers Heese * 
and Pupuis, and fortunately soon after the end of the month the 
snow had melted on the south side of the hills to such an ex- 
tent that this amount of hay will suffice. The 127 head of bells 
and young stock kept at aanrnoth were fed 30 tons of baled hay, 
and have just recently been taken back to the Buffalo Farm where 
they will be placed with the balance of the herd. The taw herd 
now numbers, including the new calves, 432 animals. 

On Mareh 9th a work horse on Slough Creek was gored by 
a buffalo bull, but not seriously, and it well at this time. 


AttU* Uto* the spring days, the bears art baek./ard 
about ooming eat, although two were 10011 during the month, and 
tracks of others roportod. sslstaat Ohlof Hanger Harry Iriseh- 
man, who aeoomuanled :.*. J. A, Ramsey, the representative of tr. 
C. L. Choetor, who Is taking marring pioturee In the pvk, to the 
Ipper Basin and Canyon, relates a most Interesting aoeount of a 
bear and an elk oboerred by the party at Upper Baeln on ipril 
19th, The party wae waiting to get a moving ploture of the Olant 
Geyser, which wae about to play, when a cow elk In rather poor 
oondltlon oa-ne on the scene, elosoly followed by on incense 
grlasly bear. yell attracted their attention and the bear 
turned and oaae towards the narty, sons of which suddenly decided 
they had Important business elsewhere and lost no time In getting 
sway. But Trisohman stood his ground and a second yell changed 
the course of the bear whloh again took up the ohaee of the elk. 
Bat she had taken advantage of the situation to oee&oe, bat being 
too tired and worn out to run far, she took refuge under the 
bridge across the Flrehole lver, whlob is close by and the bear 
did not succeed In again locating her, though he tried to do so. 
fter the grlMly had finally abandoned the search and left. It 
was with considerable difficulty that the elk was driven from 
under the bridge ss her ploture could be talon. iVlsahaan Is 
satisfied that she would hare furnished a sapper fir the grissly 
hod he not Interfered. 

£fi££. bout 200 doer were re or tod at Gardiner and 
Headquarters, end they seemed to hare stood the adverse 
conditions better than did the elk. Zen dead ones were reported 
for the month. She others are In fairly good shape for this tine 
of the year. 

.n talons . Eleven dead antolo * were found during April 
by rangers on patrol from Gardiner Station. 200 were seen by 
Chief Hanger McBrlde near the north line on the 6th, in rather 
poor oondltlon. uite a number of the antelope are still outside 
of the oark, but will soon return now that they can scatter and 
go up to higher group*. 

.ilk.. ?he timely receipt of funds donated by oitisens 
for hay for the elk saved a heavy loss among the northern herds. 
She number fed during the month in the vicinity of Gardiner dwindled 
from about a thousand the first of the month, to a hundred the 
last of the month, as they gradually left tha feeding grounds sad 
went up as the grass became mare abundant. At Vsmmeth the number 
varied from about 400 the first of the month, to 100 at the close. 
In both cases the number did not dwindle much until nearly the 
end of the month. 


forty-six dead elk ..ere removed from the feeding grounds 
at iardiner daring the month, end 49 dead onaa were hauled away 
from tha iiawneth feeding grounds during tea aama period. The 
Bangers making patrol a fron Uardlnar raportad 124 daad alx no tad 
on patrols from that station, of whloh 30 ware just outside the 
pane line, whloh aakss a total of 219 deed ones reported for the 
month of April, bat of oourae there are many Mora chat hare died 
In the foothills that have net yet been dleoovered, though the 
general situation Is very encouraging and we de not look for nana 
farther loss among then, fifty were shipped to Me Moxieo on 
April 10th under your authority ef .'aroh 12, bat no raport has 
been received aa to tha suooess of the shipment, .'his was really 
too late to ship elk under ordinary conditions, bat there wee a 
lot of trouble getting the exress oars to handle them, resulting 
in nearly three weeds' delay. Che prepeeed elk eonnt has been 
abandoned for thla season. 

Seren mountain steep were re -or ted In 
liardlner Canyon and on "lount iverts, bat no speolal effort was 
made to check up these aalmala during the month. They were In 
fair condition and apparently getting enough to eat. r.«o deed 
onaa were found, apparently died from natural causes. 

Bflftll Seren moose were seen by Hanger lsdca in his 
dlstrlot daring the month. In good condition. One waa seen on 
the road between Maaaeth and Tower fella. 

hanger* Anderson ana i>ewing devoted 
mast of their time daring the month ef April to hantlng wolves and 
coyotes, .'hay killed 4 coyotes, one adult wolf, and one cross 
fox. In addition to these Dewing killed S wolf paps In a den 
near Tower rails, and inderson reports be has one wolf den closed 
up on Blaoktall Dear Creek In such a manner that the wolves oannot 
eaoa e but oast die. itanger Bear killed five wolf papa In a den 
near Tower Falls, ilals record of 14 wolves and an uncertain 
number In the dan. Is gratifying, as each wolf destroyed means 
much to the ^reservation of tha elk, deer, antelope and sheen. 

In lions are evidently imry 

scarce In the park, and have been ae all winter. Reports of 
their sign are wary acaroe. 

fixating.. Srasing Improved to aoms extent during the 
month, and mooh ground waa cleared of snow by thawing weather, 
at tha lower levels along the north line of the park. The 
balance of the park still remains covered by a thick shroud of 
enow, it the end of April there was an appreciable amount of 
grass available for the elk, and most of them had left the feed- 


ihg grounds. By May 4th praetloallj, all of the elk had left the 
feeding grounde, and there wae enough grazing to warrant turning 
out the horse herd and the tame buffalo. 



On pril 6th bitterroot plants appeared above ground. 
On the 17th clover loaves on the lawns at Jianmth. 
On the 28th buttercups In bloom near eroselng of state 
line by Gardiner River. 

On the 2nd desert homed lark appeared] on the 3rd 
Mountain song sparrow appeared and began singing on 
the 16th| on the 4th snow bunting appeared} on the 5th 
a baldpate duck; on the 11th a I'ownsend solitaire: on 
the 12th a desert sparrow hawk and an osprey arrived; 
on the 13th a raeadowlark arrived and began singing 
on the 19th, and on the 18th a Swainson hawk was seen; 
on the 22nd the first green-winged teal; on the 23rd 
a sharp-eklmied hawk and a Brewer blackbird arrived; 
and on the 24th the first red-shaftod flicker was seen. 
Bluebirds increased rapidly but the robins were very 
slow to attain abundance. Bluebirds began singing on 
the 7th and robins on the 23rd. On the 25th young nut- 
crackers were seen. 


are late. 

On the 4th the flret buffalo oalf in the tame herd and 
the first black bear seen. By the 8th most of the horn 
butts on bull elk had begun to swell. On the 10th a 
weasel seen still in the pure white coat, -t the end 
of the month only one small elk and three spikes re- 
taining the old horns to a hundred elk. One bull elk 
with new horns four inches long and the first tine 
startedj white-tail deer with one laeh hornsj mule deer 
with throe inch horasj and jack rabbits auite brown 
with only under parts, tall, and ears white. 

hile several of the birds are early, the majority 
Reckoning fro/i these, the season is 9 days late. 


Pishing was good in Oardlner Kiver below the mouth of 
Boiling Elver, and was enjoyed by a few residents. It was also 
good in Pirehole River and at some points In Itodieon Kiver, but 
there were few there to enjoy it. 

fhe new regulations of the park, approved effective 

Marah 1, aarc reocived, and the new limit of fish to 10 per day 
per parson within t*> miles of the belt line road was broughtto 
the attention of employees and park residents by a special clr- 

;ro teat Ian qf g^g. 

Jbe usual patrols of the winter ware nade by park 
rangers, from Headquarters and from park stations. \ dally patrol 
alone the north line waa nade from Gardiner station by Reaper 
•"11a "o w * 

* *u — °° **** ** nw-,Bl *y oxleted, the game preserve outside 
of the park wast of Yellowstone Hirer was patrolled by selstant 
Chief Hangar Smith, and the opposite side of the rlror Is still 
patrolled by the special forest rangers detailed by the Forest 
Service for that duty. 

Bo Tlolatlons of law ware reported, and no arrests 
umre nade during the month. 

On April 21 Forest Ranger . . R. Johns and another Forest 
Hanger who with Johns is serving in the Abaaroka national Forest 
In the special work of protecting the wild animals wintering out- 
side of the park, had oeoaalon to return from one of their patrols, 
through the park* and about 1& miles Inside of the park, on Hell- 
roaring Creek, they found the body of a/nan, the snow which cowered 
hlo hawing melted so that a little of his olothiag showed. He 
Oame to Kamoth and reported the details of his dlaoovery an 
the following day, April 2Z, and 1 wired to you that night. 

Park Bayers George .Inn, of the Soda Butte Station, 
and Ralph Harr, of lower Falls Station, wore directed to go to the 
point, make full investigation and re art, and bury the body near 
the point where It waa found, as it waa impracticable to mora it 
under present winter conditions. ?hlo they did on April 24, the 
Burial Serrloe being read by Hangar 'Inn from the Episcopal rayer 

Due to snow conditions and lack of pack anl ale, It 
was found to be Impracticable to oonrey lumber to the place for 
making a box, but the body was carefully wrapped in a strong 
canvas before burial, and this will last for several years In oaae 
of idantifloation through any means. 

Ibe body waa buried four foot deep, as a large rook 
was encountered at this depth, whioh rarevented going deeper. The 


grave is located about Is miles Inside of the park from the 
north boundary, on the right bank of J'ollroeria" Creek, It 
Is marked with states at the head and foot, and the tree near 
by Is blazed. 

A careful description of the nan was taten, as follows; 

Height about S feet 5 Inches. 

Weight about 120 pounds. 

Age about 40 years. 

Heavy blank eyebrows. 

Lang, heavy blaok hair. 

Blank mustache. 

He had on the following named clothing] One undershirt; 
four cotton overshlrts; one blue serge coat: one red striped 
macklnaw ooat; two pairs of underdrawers; one pair blue overalls; 
one brown and green checkered caps two pairs of cotton socks on 
his feet, also sons rags wreuoed around his feet. He had a pair 
of tan shoes with clott tope and rubber heels, but these he was 
carrying tied to his arm. His feet had been frosen and badly 
crippled. Aside from the above, there was positively no way to 
Identify the man. 

This Incident explains the report made by itr, . . 
Saris, of Oardincr, Montana, made to our rangers on January 31, 
to the effect that shlle he was trapping act far outside of the 
park line on Hellroarln; Creek, he had found tracks of a nan 
outside of the park and leading Into the park on Fellroarlng; 
that he found indications that this man had lived at the Forest 
••s cabin on Hellroarlng Creek for about a month, as he had 
all the rations that had been placed in the cabin by the 
rangers far winter use. Also that the tracks and signs Indicated 
that he was crippled, probably frorc frozen feet. He took the 
pains to follow the peculiar trail until he reached the park line, 
but Dlvls hawing firearms did not want to go into the park as 
be had no authority to carry arms unsealed In the park. He said 
he believed a dead man would be found in the park when the snow 

Ranger Harr, stationed at Tower Palls, was sent to 
this vicinity four times afterwards to investigate the report, 
but the deep snows had covered up all traces, and he found nothing 
to report. Also we had c report that a man who had been partially 
frosen had shaved up at Chieo Hot Springs and many thought this 
was the man whose trail Davis hod reported. 

The man was apparently a foreigner. There were no 
signs of violence, and it was apparent that he had perished from 
exposure and cold. \ special report of this incident was made 
en April 30th. 

- o- 


Some of the mt important special visitors to the park 
during April were as follows? 

lire, rryor, of tl.e firm of r-ryer i Jrischman, returned 
from a trip of several jocks' abeeuoe from the park, with hor 
father, "r. msohmen. 

Mr* C. A* Hamilton, who has general stores at Upper 
Basin and Lake Outlet, returned to Momaoth early In April, but 
as he cannot get oat to the location of hie stores except on snow- 
shoes, bo is waiting at lUrnott* and assisting the Hotel 
with the work of receiving eu plies for the summer. 

Mr. ■ • tm Vlehols, of the Tellowstone ark 
tlon Company and Tellowstone ark Fotel Company, visited the >mrk 
from their general offices in Helena, on vprll 7th and 8th, 
in connection with the business of these oo-manies. 

Mr* Howard Haya, Jeneral Manager, and his assistant 
general manager Mr/ Moorman, visited the park fron their general 
headquarters in Livingston, Montana, several tines during the 
month. In connection with their extensive 1 prove. -mnts at Manas th 
Gamp and Can? Roosevelt. 

Mr. Jesse Kelson, Gracing Expert of the U. |« Forest 
service Off loo in ashington, and Mr. Ernest Shaw, Superviede of 
the baaroka national Forest, in Livingston, Montana, called on 
ua April 10th, In oonneetlor lth the spscial eare and feeding 
of the elk herds along the north line, and the proposed count of 
the herds. 

The only motion plotore representative in the park 
during the month waa '«r. J. ••-. Ransey, representing r. C. L. 
Chester, of 120 .. 41st :>troct, Hew Tork, who his boon here since 
March 12th. Mvery asstsfemee practicable has been given r. 
Ramsey, and he reports he is havln: oueoees in getting some ex- 
cellent park olotures of anltmls, goysere, eto. assistant Chief 
Ranger Harry Jrlsohoan and Itanger Prosier aaooueuiied him on a 
trip on skis to Upper Basin and Canyon, leaving Mammoth on April 
13th. They returned to Mammoth on 'lay 5th am -'.soy still 

has a few more pictures to get before he leaves the nark. 


Free picture shows .vers held at the 
Post Exchange auditorium weekly, under a cooperative arrangement 


between pnrlc employee! and the residents of Gardiner, yiret-clnea 
picture! vera ah own. 

R«ll3ioxu service! waro held twice during the month 
under to* direotioa of Rn. J. f. .rltohard, and Chriatian Sol 
eerriooa wero hald wea-ily on iundty- afternoons. 

The uaual report of aonlea collected, due and trana- 
aitted, on the r«pul*r hlank farms. Is lneloaad, together with 
noney ordara and aheak for the amount recilttod, - ,7.50. Uai 
aoicnowledge raoalpt. 

Oflrdl&lly yours, 

Aotiag Jupartnteadent. 

i'be Jlroctor, 
national Park :*rrlou, 
Department of the Interior, 
*«'aehington t D. c.